Chapter 2 Study Guide

From ITCwiki

Linux Installation and Usage

^ Preparation and installation of Fedora Linux using good practices.
^ Outline the structure of Linux interface.
^ Enter basic shell commands and find command documentation.
^ Properly shutdown the Linux OS

Preparing for Installation

  • Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
  • The minimum requirement s for Fedora 13 Linux can be found :
http://docs.fedoraproject.org
  • Preinstallation checklist
  • A system checklist that can compared against the HCL during installation.
  • Information will include :
• CPU (Type /MHz)
• RAM (Mb)
• Keyboard model and layout
• Hard Disk size (MB)
• Host Name
• Network card IP configuration
• IP address, Netmask Gatway, DNS servers, and DHCP
• Linux Packages to install
• Video Card Make and Model
• Video Card RAM (Mb)
• Monitor make and model
• Monitor Vsync and HSync ranges

Installation Methods

  • FTP server across network
  • HTTP web server across network
  • NFS server across network
  • SMB (SAMBA) server across network
  • Packages located on HD
  • CD-ROM or bootable DVD media

Performing the Installation stages

  • Start installation
  • Choosing language, keyboard and storage type
  • Selecting hostname, time zone & root password
  • Configuring storage devices
  • Configuring the boot loader
  • Selecting and installing packages
  • Completing first boot wizard

Starting the Installation

  • System Rescue – A installation feature used to repair a system from the installation DVD
Can be used to repair a Linux system which cannot be started.
  • Memory Test – Can be used to test memory and prevent errors. Uses memtest86 utility to test RAM for errors

Checking media for errors

  • Feature of the default installation
  • Optional - Good practice with new, unused media
  • Checks bootable DVD or CD-ROM for errors

Choosing language, keyboard and storage type

  • This is just a matter of choosing the language you’ll be using,
your default keyboard layout and whether or not you’ll installing Linux locally or on a DASD (direct access storage device)

Configuring Storage Devices

Can only be one of four basic configurations:
  • Primary master PATA - had
  • Primary slave PATA – hdb
  • Secondary master PATA – hdc
  • Secondary slave PATA – hdd
Used by newer server systems typically use :
  • SATA/SCSI –1st disk= sda, 2nd disk = sdb, 3rd disk= sdc, ect.
  • Unlike PATA can have more than four hard disks

Hard Disk Partitioning

  • Maximum of four primary partitions
  • Extended Partition can contain unlimited number of smaller partitions or logical drives
  • Root Directory (\)
  • Swap memory – Virtual memory utilized when physical memory (RAM) is being exhausted

Primary Master Partitioning

Linux only requires two partitions minimum :
  • Root directory (main directory) designated by a “\”
  • Swap (aka Virtual memory)
NOTE : Doesn’t contain a file system and is never mounted to a directory because Linux is responsible for swapping info.
  • Extra partitions help keep the entire system free from errors.

Basic Linux

  • Kernel – Loads all components and controls computing activities, the heart of the operating system
Once the BIOS starts after boot-up, it then starts a boot loader (such as GRUB) which then loads the Linux Kernel into memory.
If there is a windows system already on the HD the boot loader can give you the option of which OS you’d like to load. This is known as dual booting.
  • Terminal – Channel that allows users to log in
  • Shell – Passes user input to the kernel for processing. BASH shell (Bourne Again Shell) – command-line shell similar to cmd on Windows

Basic Shell Commands

  • Commands – Case sensitive, indicate program to execute
  • Options – specific letters preceded by a hyphen (-) following a command
  • Arguments – specify parameters that tailor the command to the users particular needs
  • Command line order is this.. (Command) (Options)(Argument)
  • Ls – a /etc/ntp
Command = Ls (list)
Option = -a (lists all files)
Argument = /etc/ntp (refers to the /etc/ntp directory)

Common Commands

  • You can find some common commands on page 66 of the text.

Metacharacters

  • Keyboard characters that have a special meaning
  • ($) – Tells the shell that the following text refers to variable
  • A piece of information that is stored in memory, typically uppercase words, automatically set by the Linux system at login
  • There’s a list of metacharacters used in BASH on page 67 of the text

Help

  • Manual pages (man pages)
  • man <command name>
  • Include description, syntax, options, related files, and commands
  • Search manual pages with a keyword use –k
  • man –k <keyword>
  • Info pages – include easy-to-read description and hyperlinks

Shutdown Commands

  • Here is a list of various shutdown commands which can be found on page 73 of the text

Table 2-10.png

Credit

All info compiled, edited and coded by : Rob Klaers, Clay Wilson, Michael Garin, & Todd Bailly

NOTE : all page numbers reference the Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification 3rd Ed. by Jason W. Eckert ISBN 978-1-4188-3721-1